Pollution of the environment is the inclusion of substances, living organisms or other energy into the water or air. Contamination can also be interpreted as a change in the composition of the media that has been contaminated for example soil or water or air that is caused by several factors such as human, natural processes, and the other which resulted in a decrease in the quality of media that is contaminated so that it can not function properly as it should , Nowadays pollution in the earth is getting uncontrollable especially after the industrial revolution, many factories were built and cause various types of pollution.
Therefore the existence of this natural control is needed, especially on environmental pollution by setting a quality standard of waste that must be disposed of in the environment and in accordance with certain levels. What causes earthquakes facts pollution is currently happening anywhere, especially in an environment based on industry or factories with a fairly dense population so that no more inevitable pollution either because of industrial waste and heavy metals.
Types of Pollution
There are several types of environmental pollution this time you need to know so that you can control environmental pollution, more see below.
Water pollution is a change in the substance or content of the well water in the river water, lake and water in the ocean even now also have the pollution of ground water. The cause of water pollution is mostly caused by human activity. This is certainly very dangerous if left alone and not get better prevention because the water in rivers, lakes, oceans and ground water is one part of the hydrologic cycle. There are various functions of water which was very helpful because besides human life can be a source of life is also able membungan all the sediments and pollutants.
There are various functions of water in this world of which contain water as a raw material, for use as irrigation agriculture and farming, sewerage and also the function of rain water and be able to make alternative attractions. Water can also change substances in it as well as if the occurrence of natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, cause floods , droughts and others, but this does not make the cause of water pollution because it is more focused on what is done by humans, so this causes water pollution.
The amount of water pollution phenomenon is now happening everywhere and is already in a critical period as it may be almost half the water in the earth experienced contamination. This makes regulation of this pollution requires action policy evaluation both for large corporations, as well as to the individual stages. This is particularly important given that many cases of disease transmission occurs through water and have caused many casualties.
Examples of water contamination
An example is what happened in India where the country has a high population density and inadequate sanitation. At least 700,000 people who do not have access to toilets and an estimated 1,000 children died of diarrhea every day. Similarly, the more densely populated countries but awareness of cleanliness are lacking. Recorded at least 14,000 people died from waterborne diseases worldwide. This number of course is fantastic and may continue to grow if no immediate prevention of pollution of this water.
Water will be said to suffer from pollution if it is contaminated by organic kontaminamin who can not support what is the source of human life and other living things, especially in the water like a fish. As a result, water ecology will be impaired and if this happens it can cause anomalies phenomenon that is not usually the case.
Causes of Water Pollution
The existence of water pollution can be caused by several things, such as the following:
- An increase in the content of nutrients that occur in water that leads to their esutrofikasi
- The presence of organic waste disposal which is usually generated by household waste such as sewage are dumped into the water to make oxygen in the water is reduced and disrupted so that water living creatures will also experience a disruption in their lives as well as public spaces to life . If this continues it will be able to cause damage to aquatic ecosystems.
- The industry carelessly dispose of their waste into the water in the waste when there are a variety of very dangerous chemicals such as heavy metals, oils, nutrein, organic wastes and solids. As in the case of household waste, industrial waste also has a thermal effect that is capable of eliminating the oxygen in the water that can damage aquatic ecosystems. In addition, if the water is mixed with the waste chemicals it can not be used by all living creatures, including humans because it is not safe anymore and have poison in it.
- Trash discharges from households or industries causing water pollution.
- The use of explosives such as bombs to kill the fishes are mostly done by fishermen are also capable of causing water pollution.
As a result of Air Pollution
As a result of the pollution of this water are as follows:
- Pollution can cause flooding
- Water pollution can also cause soil erosion and other media that are dangerous to human life
- The scarcity of water because the water is already experiencing contamination and can not be used again later
- Is one source of disease for the survival of living beings
- Water pollution can also cause cause landslides
- Besides water pollution can also cause damage to the ecosystem of the river and other waters, especially if there is the content of heavy metals and chemicals that are found in these waters.
- Attributed the loss to the fishermen and a variety of water-related professions.
Other types of environmental pollution is air. Air pollution is a condition dimaa there are various substances substance be it physical, chemical and biological also contained in the layer of the atmosphere of the earth. If the amount of the substance exceeds the limit then it could cause harm to the living things in it and can mengaggu aesthetics and comfort of life on earth.
The cause of air pollution varies both by human activities or indeed a natural phenomenon. Various types of air pollution for example is light pollution, heat radiation and noise pollution. Area air pollution can be in the range of the local region to the global. Air pollution can occur in a closed room or in the open area.
Sources of Air Pollution
In the air pollution can be divided into primary pollutant source and also secondary pollutants. Something is going to be regarded as the primary pollutant if it occurs directly pollute the air there. The most numerous in the case of carbon monoxide are the substances that are the result of the combustion process of environmentally unfriendly waste. As for the type of secondary pollutants are the result of a derivative of an existing primary pollutant in the atmosphere. For this example in the formation of photochemical smog ozone due.
As for the other air pollution sources that cause pollution udaa are as follows:
- Human activity – this includes the transportation, the various factories and industries that dispose of waste gas or smoke carelessly and not through a mechanism that is supposed, because pembangit electricity from burning tool either in large or small scale such as a stove, furnace, frunance and others and exhaust gas that is owned by the factory mainly menganudung CFC in it.
- Natural sources – air pollution that occurs is due to the natural source of natural phenomena such as the eruption of volcanoes, swamps, forest fires during the dry season and also denitrification and under certain conditions the plants are able to produce volatile organic can be a pollutant in air.
- Another source – air pollution can also occur due to various other sources which are due to gas tank leak caused by human negligence, lack of transport increased jumlanya, because the organic solvent vapor and also of methane gas from the landfill.
Types of Pollutants Cause Air Pollution
- Carbon monoxide from the burning of trash
- Because substance sulfur oxides
- CFC gases that are usually contained in exhaust gas and industrial end mill
- Vaolatil presence of organic compounds in the plant can be atmospheric pollutants in the air
- free radicals
- nitrogen oxides
Impact of Air Pollution
1. Impact on health
The presence of various substances in the polluted air that can enter the body through the oxygen inhaled by the respiratory tract. Large or small substances that enter the body will depend on the size of the pollutant itself. So for pollutant particles whose size is quite likely only to a portion of upper respiratory while pollutant particles small enough to go up into the bottom of the respiratory system. Because entry into the respiratory system will also be entered into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body.
The most common type of illness suffered as a result of air pollution are ARI (acute respiratory infection) and also covers the various types of respiratory diseases for example bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma and other diseases also seriously enough. In Indonesia, the most famous areas in the presence of air pollution is in the capital of Jakarta as a center of industry and population concentrations.
2. Impact on the plant
Not only human beings who will feel the effects of this air pollution but also for plants. Plants that grow in areas highly vulnerable to air pollution can mutate genes and cause grown ineffective and has many diseases and disorders in it. disruptions in the plant, for example there are dark spots, necrosis, chlorosis. The presence of this pollutant particles are able to make the process of photosynthesis in plants.
3. Acid rain
Other impacts caused by air pollution is the occurrence of acid rain or acid rain. Ph steady rain that usually can be decreased due to the reaction of the rain water and also some substances that are included in the cause of air pollution. As for the impact of acid rain are as follows:
- Affecting water quality and contaminated rain water on the surface of the earth
- Can damage the plant because the water is very acidic
- Acid rain is also capable of dissolving the heavy metal in the soil so the metals will dissolve in groundwater and it would be very dangerous.
- Capable of destroying buildings are mainly made of copper, iron, aluminum since it has corrosive properties.
4. The greenhouse effect
The impact of air pollution also can cause the greenhouse effect. Their process of greenhouse effect this glass because of the large amount of CO2, CFCs, ozone, methane and N2O contained in the layer of the atmosphere is the troposphere where this layer is that absorb light ultarvolet and reflect sunlight back out of the earth and if the coating is damaged then the sun will trapped in the earth so that it becomes the cause of global warming . As for the impact of the greenhouse effect is as follows:
- The increase in the average temperature at the earth
- The melting of ice in the polar regions both south and north
- Global climate change
- The life cycle of flora and fauna is also changing
5. Damage to the ozone layer
The ozone layer is a layer in the atmosphere stratosphere. The ozone layer is a natural protector of the earth for being able to filter out ultraviolet rays that are harmful to the body. if there is damage to the ozone layer this may possibly lead to the earth becomes hotter and led to life on Earth is threatened.
Types of environmental pollution that three is soil contamination, which contamination is due to substances or chemicals present in the soil and usually occurs as a result of human activity that alters the structure and content of unspoiled land. There are many things that make these chemicals into the soil for example leakage of waste liquid chemicals result from certain industrial plant, the use of pesticides on crops into the soil layer , the accident rider that transport oil to chemicals present in the oil spilled into the soil, as well as waste disposal directly dumped into the soil without decomposition done beforehand.
Now, when the chemical had entered into the ground then these substances can enter into the deeper soil and contaminate groundwater, can evaporate into the air and can also be washed away by rain water so as to give rise to a variety of other pollution. these chemicals are certainly very dangerous for living beings who experience presentation including humans, plants and animals. Their exposures occur continuously can lead to various types of penykit including leukemia and other serious diseases.
Impact of soil contamination
the impact of soil pollution on health have been especially affected. And this impact will depend on how strong the chemicals present in the soil causing the soil contamination. Examples of chemicals that are able to disturb the health, among others, the following:
- timbale is not very good and very dangerous for the health of the human brain and kidney problems.
- In addition there is also material kuri timbale which also is not good for the body ksehetan and other materials that can not even be treated. So the contamination in the soil is very dangerous.
- Chromium , is one of the chemicals that are dangerous to all living creatures population is not only harmful to humans alone.
- Siklodenia and PCBs , can trigger damage to the liver
- Organofostfat , these substances can cause nerve damage muscle
- Klroin , capable of causing disorders of the liver, kidney and central nervous in the brain
Those are some chemicals that can damage various organs in the body functions of both the outside and inside of the body. however this disorder will depend on how large amount of exposure to chemicals and how long such exposure occurs in the body. the longer and the greater number of his presentation, the risk of getting various diseases will be more and vice versa.
The impact on ecosystems
Soil pollution can also cause damage to the ecosystem. This is due to the soil very susceptible to changes in kimiawai substance in it even if only to experience little pollution and makes the changes of metabolism in living organisms in the ecosystem so that it automatically ecosystem will also experience changes in the ecosystem. Due to changes in the ecosystem can also make some of the food chain so that extinct ecosystem sustainability must also be questioned.
Even if in the food chain at the bottom pyramid group had experienced contamination in their bodies then will be transmitted in the food chain group that is above that whole food chain can be broken. In this case for example is easily cracked egg shells as well as the occurrence of a mass mortality in puppies so there are no more substitutes seed.
The impact on agriculture
The impact on agriculture on soil contamination will usually be directly seen in the quality of crops. Usually the plant metabolism will decrease and make a variety of disorders in it, causing crop failure. Moreover, in plants is also very likely exposed to chemicals that are no longer suitable plants consume more.
Soil Pollution Treatment
- Remediation – remediation is a way to clean up the land surface experiencing soil contamination. There are two types of remediation is that in situ and ex-situ. Cleaning by means of in-situ cleaning done while official site for ex-situ cleaning is done by digging on the land affected by contamination and move it to a safer place.
- Bioremidiasi – Another way to do handling soil contamination is to bioremidiasi. How this is done by providing microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria to break down chemicals that exist in the soil. This method may indeed longer but quite effective over the years.
That information regarding environmental pollution. Seeing that many of the negative impacts of environmental pollution then it is better to not make those that lead to the contamination of lingkingan because it is very detrimental to all parties. thanks.